Kapferer Brand Identity Prism – Concept & Examples

In order to become a brand with loyal following or how Kapferer says ‘passion brand’ or ‘love marks’, brands should not be just a name. Instead they should have a story or a deeper inner inspiration which connects to its consumers. Brands should have their own character, their own beliefs and their own identity. Kapferer Brand Identity Prism tells us how to build a story and give the brand a much needed identity considering six important facets of brand identity.

Kapferer Brand Identity Prism

1Brand Physique (Kapferer Brand Identity Prism)

A brand, first and foremost, should have ‘physique’ with physical specifications and qualities. It is made of a combination of either salient objective features (which immediately come to mind when the brand is quoted in a survey) or emerging ones. Physical appearance is important but it is not all. Nevertheless, the first step in developing a brand is to define its physical aspect: What is it concretely? What does it do? What does it look like? The physical facet also comprises the brand’s prototype: the flagship product that is representative of the brand’s qualities.

Example: Coca Cola in all its communications lays special emphasis on the ‘Coke Bottle’ and how it looks. For markets where Coke entered for the first time, it always starts with the traditional Coke bottle. In fact to no surprise, Coke cans also have a outline of the iconic coke bottle. Therefore, the physical appearance of the brand remains intact.

Also, colour of the product (say Black in the case of Coke), should be a part of the physique. And if so, you can never imagine a colourless Coke. There could be variants of different colours but the brand colour will never change.

2Brand Personality (Kapferer Brand Identity Prism)

A brand has a personality. By communicating, it gradually builds up character. The way in which it speaks of its products or services shows what kind of person it would be if it were human. This is a tough task to implant a product as a human in the mind of consumers. Therefore, brands rope in famous personalities to endorse the product. The brand and the celebrity being roped should sync in personality therefore forming an important facet of Kapferer Brand Identity Prism.

Example: Mountain Dew, a drink from Pepsico, promises thrill and adventure and therefore always loops in celebrities who are seen close to sports.

3Brand Culture (Kapferer Brand Identity Prism)

A Brand should have its own culture and brands with strong culture end up being ‘cult’. Both product and communication should reflect this culture. Brands targeting masses focus on culture which is common to a wider chunk of population or vice versa. Late entrants to the market prefer choosing a niche targeting a particular culture and evlove big in due course of time.

Brand culture plays an essential role in Kapferer Brand Identity Prism and helps differentiating brands. It indicates the ethos whose values are embodied in the products and services of the brand.

Example: Royal Enfield motorcycles in India have a cult following as the brand has a very strong culture. Though started slow but the brand is the fastest growing in the motorcycle industry in India both in terms of following as well as market share.

Brand Culture is very much influenced by the country of origin. Other global brands such as Apple, Nike, IBM adhere to an idea which is more globally accepted.

4Relationship (Kapferer Brand Identity Prism)

Indeed, brands are often at the crux of transactions and exchanges between people. This is particularly true of brands in the service sector and also of retailers. Once the consumers build a relationship with the brand, the brand can demand consumers to do things which it believes in.

Example: Nike bears a Greek name that relates it to specific cultural values, to the Olympic Games and to the glorification of the human body. Nike suggests also a peculiar relationship, based on provocation: it encourages us to let loose (‘just do it’). Nike in India created amazing TVC celebrating women athletes featuring Deepika Padukone. Here the brand is in a position to ask its consumers to ‘Just Do It’ because it has nurtured a relationship.


5Reflection (Kapferer Brand Identity Prism)

A brand is a customer reflection. When asked for their views on certain car brands, people immediately answer in terms of the brand’s perceived client type: that’s a brand for young people! for fathers! for show-offs! for old folks! Because its communication and its most striking products build up over time, a brand will always tend to build a reflection or an image of the buyer or user which it seems to be addressing.

Example: A majority of apparel brands portray a model in the age group of not who they are targeting, but the age group which the consumer thinks he/she belongs on buying that brand. In reference to the below ad, only a minuscule percentage of people in the age group (as shown in the image) will buy a Louis Vuitton suit. The consumer group will be much older for the product, however all those consumers will perceive to look younger with an ad featuring a young model (Jacey Elthalion in the below ad).


6Self Image (Kapferer Brand Identity Prism)

Finally, a brand speaks to our self-image. If reflection is the target’s outward mirror (they are …), self-image is the target’s own internal mirror (I feel, I am …). Through our attitude towards certain brands, we indeed develop a certain type of inner relationship with ourselves. And therefore, these brands always communicate to push the limits.

Example: BMW India launched a campaign for people who see themselves driving a BMW, no matter now or future. The campaign went on TV as Don’t Postpone Joy. Below is the TVC asking to drive a BMW sooner.


Interbrand announces the Best Global Brands 2016

If you are reading this, we assume that you have some interest in the field of Marketing and Brands. Recently, Interbrand has released Interbrand Best Global Brands List for the year 2016. In case you are hearing it for the first time, we are slightly taken by surprise. Anyways, here is everything you need to know about the latest rankings. There has always been questions on how does building brand equity help a business and why should one keep investing on it. For everyone who has had this question, Interbrand Best Global Brand List answers all of it every year with their list of the Best Global Brands.

The Interbrand Best Global Brands 2016 list has brands valued at $178,000 to $4,000. Please note this is not the net worth of the organisation but ONLY the brand value or what marketers very popularly call as Brand Equity of a brand.


Facebook emerged as the fastest growing brand among all. As per Interbrand, among this year’s Best Global Brands, they have found some common hallmarks. Some common characteristics that are helping grow brands and businesses. While every brand’s path is unique, those making the most impressive strides tend to defy sector norms and have a clear sense of self. They know when to build versus borrow. Their brand and business are cohesive and built around people. And they have a clear strategy for growth. That’s what makes them Best Global Brands.

Both HP and Hewlett Packard Enterprise made an appearance for the first time in the list. Tesla too made it to the Interbrand Best Global Brands List for the first time and managed to take the 100th position.

Why Coca Cola dropped Salman Khan from Thums Up?

Coca Cola India has recently confirmed that the company has not renewed superstar Salman Khan’s contract for their brand Thums Up. This move comes at a time when Salman Khan has started hosting the new season of his addictive TV show Bigg Boss Season 10. The company claims that the reason of the move is seeking a better brand fit, as the actor is now too old for the brand which caters to a young energetic audience. Consequently, Coca Cola dropped Salman Khan from Thums Up endorsement. However, if we read between the lines, the real reason of exit could be something else.

Brand Ambassadors of Thums Up in India

Salman Khan was roped in as brand ambassador of Thums Up in October 2012. Prior to Salman Khan, actor Akshay Kumar was the face of Thums Up from early 2000s. The brand also roped in few big names like Mahesh Babu from the southern part of the country. Salman Khan has been widely recognised as the face of Thums Up in India a result of his prolonged relationship with the brand, almost more than 4 years. Also, the actor’s popularity is at a all time high with super hits movies in the multi crore club recently. Both of his recent released – Bajarangi Bhaijan & Sultan broke all records at the box office. Thereby, it quite evident that there is no dearth in the star’s popularity. Still Coca Cola dropped Salman Khan from Thums Up. Then, what might have lead to this move by Coca Cola India?

The real reason why Coca Cola dropped Salman Khan from Thums Up endorsement

Coca Cola dropped Salman KhanCoca Cola India claims that the company is looking for a younger face for the brand and has indicated roping in Ranveer Singh. However, this doesn’t fall in place considering the fact that there is hardly any change in Salman Khan’s aura in the last 4 years when he was signed for the brand. Thereby claiming just the age factor doesn’t sound convincing enough.


Now lets see few finer details the actors latest engagements.

Salman Khan hosts Bigg Boss 10 presented by Appy Fizz

Salman has hosted the premier episode of Bigg Boss Season 10 recently and kick started the season. Season 10 has a different title sponsor this year. The season is presented by Appy Fizz who takes away the title sponsorship. Salman has a mandate to mention the sponsor names during the show as he did it beautifully in the grand premiere stressing on Appy Fizz multiple times. Appy Fizz competes with the product portfolio of Coca Cola India and the official might not have been happy with their brand ambassador talking about a competing product.

Salman Khan’s controversial comment on Pakistani artists in India

Also, the decision comes just 20 days after the Bollywood superstar courted controversy by supporting Pakistani artists on the debate whether they should be allowed to work in Indian movies following the Uri attack. A lot of hue and cry has gone around the matter of Pakistani artists working in India. Major influential groups across the country have boycotted movies, artists etc- form the neighbouring country. Salman Khan’s statement in support of the Pakistani artists must have played a vital role in this move. Coca Cola India must have been apprehensive on any spill over effect of boycott on over Salman Khan and the product he endorses. The brand Thums Up might go for a toss.

No matter what the company claims but we are sure that its not just the age factor which has led to the star’s exit from the brand.

What is CPRP in Advertising and Media Planning ?

Media Planning is a wide area of study largely of which is untouched at any B-School or any training program. A whole world of media terminologies exist which are not easy to comprehend. Also, it is important to understand the logic behind these advertising terms to take cognitive actions. CPRP in Advertising and Media planning is one such terms which needs to be succinctly understood. Misunderstanding the term may lead to adverse effects to the marketing campaign in general and the media plan to be specific.

CPRP – Cost Per Rating Point

While planning media, it is important to assess the cost being incurred to reach one individual in the TG (Target Group). Different marketers have varied school of thoughts while planning media. A majority of them consider CPRP in Advertising – Cost Per Rating Point. CPRP is an indicative figure which gives the media planner an idea of the cost he/she is incurring to pass on the message to one single individual falling the TG. However, as it is practically impossible to assess the exact number of individual viewers, media planners resort to rating points for an average but accurate measure.

How to calculate CPRP in Advertising?

Before exploring the methodology behind calculation of CPRP, it is important to understand how does one calculate rating points. Below is an illustration;

TVR (Television Rating Points), more popularly called as TRP is a time average percentage of the audience universe across a defined time period and is calculated as below illustration:

Viewer Start Stop Total Time Viewed
A 12:30 12:40 10 mins
B 12:46 12:50 4 mins
C 12:30 12:35 5 mins
D 12:35 1:00 25 mins
E,F,G,H,I Did Not Watch

Total duration of program = 30 mins; Total Respondents = 10

TRP = [(10/30 + 4/30 + 5/30 + 25/30)/10] X 100 = 15 TVR

The sum of all TRPs is called GRP i.e. Gross Rating Point. GRP is a relative number and has no meaning standalone.

CPRP is the amount spent by the media buyer to achieve one rating point. i.e. Total Expenditure/GRP. As CPRP is derived from GRP, even CPRP in Advertising, is a relative number and doesn’t have a significance standalone.

e.g. GRP (i.e. Sum of all TRPs/TVRs) = 30 TVR; Total amount spend on the TV Campaign = Rs 5,00,000. Then CPRP = 5,00,000/30 = 16,666.66


Though CPRP is widely used while planning media but there have been school of thoughts supporting the globally more popular CPT measure of media effectiveness. CPT i.e. cost per thousand effectively measures the amount spent to reach 1000 viewers. Thereby CPT takes into account the absolute number of people reached and therefore clearly shows the change in the number of individuals watching television or a program. CPRP, on the other hand, is a relative measure which has the backing of advertisers and media agencies, where the money is spent to reach a certain proportion of the audience. As CPRP, the buying metric for TV, takes into account the percentage of the base which has been exposed to the communication, it is less impacted by the ever changing universe.

However will CPT be the future of TV media buying is yet to be seen. Read More on Will CPT be the way forward for TV media buying?

Bigg Boss TRP reveals that season 10 is really crucial

Bigg Boss Season 10 starts airing tonight on Colors. The show has been an addiction for the audience over the years. With celebrity hosts and uninterrupted weeklong entertainment, Bigg Boss TRP is always on the radar of marketers while media planning.

Bigg Boss TRP & Brand Integrations

The ad rates jump multifold on Colors when media is bought on ROS (Run on Schedule) during Bigg Boss timings. However, not all seasons of Bigg Boss have made up there in terms of TRPs. In fact, season 9 of Bigg Boss had the lowest viewership and advertisers might feel cheated paying a premium for ad spots during the show. Not only normal TVC spots, but also brand integrations in the Bigg Boss house are looked upon. CP Plus, Maruti Suzuki, Oppo etc- spent huge on the show. In Season 10, Appy Fizz and Oppo again have bet their monies on the show.

Bigg Boss TRP – All Seasons

Lets have a look on how the previous seasons have performed on the charts:

Season Host Peak TRP Key Members
Season 1 Arshad Warsi 2.72 Rakhi Sawant
Season 2 Shilpa Shetty 3.02 Rahul Mahajan
Season 3 Amitabh Bacchan 3.06 KRK
Season 4 Salman Khan 6.70 Dolly Bindra
Season 5 Salman Khan & Sanjay Dutt 4.30 Sunny Leone
Season 6 Salman Khan 4.40 Imam Siddique
Season 7 Salman Khan 4.32 Ajaz Khan
Season 8 Salman Khan & Farah Khan 3.28 Gautam Gulati
Season 9 Salman Khan 2.90 Prince Narula


Season 4 of Bigg Boss has been the top grosser with a peak TRP of 6.7. This season was the first time when Salman Khan was hosting a show on Indian television. Also, with the plots created in the house coupled with a yelling Dolly Bindra grabbed eyeballs. The advertisers certainly raked in the moolah in this season. However, post this season the show’s TRP has almost been on a decline. Another reason for this is the movement of the show to a 10:30 time slot from Season 5. The last season i.e. season 9 of Bigg Boss had a dismal rating of 2.90 which was almost as good as the first season. The second best season after season 4 is season 6 with TRP of 4.40. Though this season comes to the second spot but the difference in the TRP numbers can not be ignored which is quite significant.

Bigg Boss TRP with change in timings

During the seasons the time of the show has changed. The highest Bigg Boss TRP in season 4 came at a time when the show was being telecasted on prime time. Post this season the show has moved to a 10:30 PM slot on weekdays. For all seasons where the show had been in the late night slot, it will be unfair to benchmark season 4 TRPs. However considering the lowest ever TRP in the last 5 seasons being in season 9 is a matter of concern. For media buyers, Big Boss Season 10 could very well be a risk which can either pay off handsomely or put them in trouble. Another point for concern with media buyers would be the simple fact that whether it is wise to consider the show as prime time with respect to the time slot.

The 7 Branding Approaches & Their School of Thoughts

Branding is the in thing across industries. Organizations are spending millions planning and implementing brand activities. Every now and then new research is being published and various frameworks are being developed in the attempt to establish different approaches to brand management. Many different branding approaches, concepts, theoretical frameworks and ideas have popped up in the subject and consequently resulted in a wide spectrum of different perspectives on how a brand should be managed. It is almost impossible to see a brand via a single lens. However, experts have classified various branding approaches in seven school of thoughts which more or less covers the entire branding landscape.

An extensive analysis of numerous papers published on brand management led to seven approaches mentioned below. This included 300+ articles from Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Consumer Research, Harvard Business Review and European Journal of Marketing. Thereby, we can be safe to claim that no matter which framework or model one follows it must have originated via one of the seven approaches mentioned below.

The Seven Branding Approaches are:

  • The economic approach: the brand as part of the traditional marketing mix.
  • The identity approach: the brand as linked to corporate identity.
  • The consumer-based approach: the brand as linked to consumer associations.
  • The personality approach: the brand as a human-like character.
  • The relational approach: the brand as a viable relationship partner.
  • The community approach: the brand as the pivotal point of social interaction.
  • The cultural approach: the brand as part of the broader cultural fabric.

There are multiple theories and model to be followed in the area of brand management with their own school of thought and have been proven to work. Be it Aaker’s brand identity model, Kapferer’s brand prism or Keller’s customer- based brand equity pyramid, all of them will enhance the brand equity of the product or service but may have evolved from different school of thoughts. Though everyone talks about the different models, rarely we find text on the school of thought rather then the actual model in practice. You will find the Brand Asset Valuator Model in many books but you might never come to know the author’s perspective.

The branding approaches are basically seven different school of thoughts towards brand management. Start imagining yourself, have you ever perceived a brand as a human being or something with whom the consumer is in a relationship? The seven approaches armor us with seven different lenses though which you see a brand. And once we start seeing the brand via different perspectives, we can always juggle between different school of thoughts as per conditions and at times create our own approach to best fit the scenario.

We should definitely know the basic thought behind all the approaches but at the same time we should also learn the fact what actually do we mean by an ‘approach’. How will one handle if asked to formulate own approach towards a brand problem?

Read more about how can you formulate your own approach or get to know an existing approach better in our upcoming articles.