Social Factors are made up of :
- Reference groups
- Roles/ Status
– A person’s reference group consist of all the groups that have a direct/ indirect influence on the person’s attitude/ behaviour.
– Reference groups are either
- Membership Group.
- Aspirational Group.
- Dissociate Group.
- Membership Group: Are groups having direct influence on a person.
- Primary: Family/ Friends/ Neighbours/ Co-workers with whom that person interacts continuously/ informally.
- Secondary: Formal/ Less continuous interaction such as professional/ relational/ trade unions/ religious groups.
- Aspirational Group:
- Groups in which a person would like to belong.
- Dissociative group:
- Groups whose values one rejects.
– Reference group influence consumer behaviour in three ways.
- Expose individual to new behaviour & lifestyle.
- Influences person’s attitude & self-concept.
- Create pressures for conformity that may affect the person’s actual product/ brand choices.
Opinion Leaders: Persons in informal product related communication who offers advice/ Information about product/ product category.
- Marketers may try to reach out to opinion leaders.
- Identifying demographic/ psychology characteristic associated with opinion leader.
- Identifying media read by opinion leaders.
- Directing message at opinion leader.
– Group influence is strong for products that are visible to others whom buyer respect.
– Influence varies with
- Group cohesiveness.
- Person’s esteem for group.
- Group’s communication effectiveness.
– Most important customer-buying organization in society.
– Also most important primary reference group.
– Each buyer has two families.
- Family of Orientation (parents/ siblings). It gives a person
- Orientation towards religion/ politics/ economics.
- Source of personal ambition/ self worth/ love.
- Family of Procreation (spouse/ children). It influences a buyer based on position:
- Husband: may dominate decision related to insurance/ automobiles.
- Wife : may dominate decision related to furniture/ appliances.
- Equal : for decision related to vacation/ housing.
– Above patterns may change due to societal changes.
– Influence of children in buying behaviour is increasing.
Roles & Statuses:
– Person participates in many groups throughout life.
– Person’s position in group is defined by role/ status.
Role : Activities a person is expected to perform.
Each role would influence person’s buying behaviour.
Status :Each role carries a status/ position.
– People choose products that communicate their role/ status.
- Farmer : Kurta/ Payjama or dhoti/ kurta + slippers/ sandals.
- Factory worker: Shirt/Pant + sandals/ shoes.
- Marketing Manager: Tie + shirt/ pant + leather shoes.