What are the 4 Cs of Marketing Mix ?

The 4 Cs of Marketing are actually drawn from the 4 Ps


We have already discussed the 4 Ps of the Marketing Mix along with the extended Marketing MixHistorically, Neil H. Borden coined the term “Marketing Mix,” in 1964. which describes a number of different ingredients that business owners should focus on to improve their business. E. Jerome McCarthy refined these ideas into the 4 Ps. The original 4 Ps – Product, Price, Place, and Promotion were extended to 7 Ps by adding – People, Processes and the Physical Evidence. However, be it the 4 Ps or the 7 Ps, both these models look at the various aspects of marketing from a marketers/sellers/business owner’s point of view. In 1973, Koichi Shimizu looked at the marketing mix from a consumer point of view and came up with the 4 Cs of Marketing Mix.

The 4 Cs of Marketing Mix

The 4 Cs is a customer-centric approach while the 4 Ps is a product-centric approach. The 4 Cs makes more sense since marketing focuses on satisfying customer satisfaction. Organizations following the 4 Cs framework are ought to be more consumer-centric and deliver greater results in the long run.

As per Koichi Shimizu, the 4 Cs of the Marketing Mix comprise of:

  1. Consumer
  2. Cost
  3. Communication
  4. Convenience

All these 4 Cs are directly drawn from the 4 Ps and are interlinked to each corresponding P in the marketing mix. Below is how the relationship flare-up:

The 4 Cs of Marketing by Koichi Shimizu


The 4 Cs of Marketing Mix as defined by Koichi Shimizu

Koichi Shimizu has defined each of the elements of the 4 Cs as below:

“P” Category (Narrow) “C” Category (Broad) “C” Definition
Product (C2) Commodity (Latin derivation: commodus=convenient) : Co-creation.It is not “product out”. The goods and services for the consumers or citizens. Steve Jobs has been making the goods with which people are pleased. It will not become commoditization if a commodity is built starting.
Price (C3)Cost (Latin derivation: constare= It makes sacrifices): There is not only producing cost and selling cost but purchasing cost and social cost.
Promotion (C4) Communication (Latin derivation: communis=sharing of the meaning): marketing communication: Not only promotion but communication is important. Communications can include advertising, sales promotion, public relations, publicity, personal selling, corporate identity, internal communication, SNS, MIS.
Place (C5)Channel (Latin derivation: canal) : marketing channels. The flow of goods.


In addition to the 4 Cs approach and similar to the extended marketing mix – The 7 Ps of Marketing – The Cs have also been extended to the 7 Cs of Marketing. This is defined as the Compass Model by Koichi Shimizu.

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