We have already discussed the 4 Ps of the Marketing Mix along with the extended Marketing Mix. Historically, Neil H. Borden coined the term “Marketing Mix,” in 1964. which describes a number of different ingredients that business owners should focus on to improve their business. E. Jerome McCarthy refined these ideas into the 4 Ps. The original 4 Ps – Product, Price, Place, and Promotion were extended to 7 Ps by adding – People, Processes and the Physical Evidence. However, be it the 4 Ps or the 7 Ps, both these models look at the various aspects of marketing from a marketers/sellers/business owner’s point of view. In 1973, Koichi Shimizu looked at the marketing mix from a consumer point of view and came up with the 4 Cs of Marketing Mix.
The 4 Cs of Marketing Mix
The 4 Cs is a customer-centric approach while the 4 Ps is a product-centric approach. The 4 Cs makes more sense since marketing focuses on satisfying customer satisfaction. Organizations following the 4 Cs framework are ought to be more consumer-centric and deliver greater results in the long run.
As per Koichi Shimizu, the 4 Cs of the Marketing Mix comprise of:
All these 4 Cs are directly drawn from the 4 Ps and are interlinked to each corresponding P in the marketing mix. Below is how the relationship flare-up:
The 4 Cs of Marketing Mix as defined by Koichi Shimizu
Koichi Shimizu has defined each of the elements of the 4 Cs as below:
|“P” Category (Narrow)||“C” Category (Broad)||“C” Definition|
|Product||(C2) Commodity||(Latin derivation: commodus=convenient) : Co-creation.It is not “product out”. The goods and services for the consumers or citizens. Steve Jobs has been making the goods with which people are pleased. It will not become commoditization if a commodity is built starting.|
|Price||(C3)Cost||(Latin derivation: constare= It makes sacrifices): There is not only producing cost and selling cost but purchasing cost and social cost.|
|Promotion||(C4) Communication||(Latin derivation: communis=sharing of the meaning): marketing communication: Not only promotion but communication is important. Communications can include advertising, sales promotion, public relations, publicity, personal selling, corporate identity, internal communication, SNS, MIS.|
|Place||(C5)Channel||(Latin derivation: canal) : marketing channels. The flow of goods.|
In addition to the 4 Cs approach and similar to the extended marketing mix – The 7 Ps of Marketing – The Cs have also been extended to the 7 Cs of Marketing. This is defined as the Compass Model by Koichi Shimizu.