Cultural Factors Effecting Consumer Behaviour (Philip Kotler Summary)



– Most fundamental determinant of a person’s wants & behaviour.

– Defined by-

  • Value Systems.
  • Perceptions.
  • Preferences.
  • Behaviour.


– Manifest through our approach to

  • Achievement/ Success.
  • Activity.
  • Freedom.
  • Efficiency/ Practicality.
  • Progress.
  • Material comfort.
  • Humanitarianism/ Spiritualism.


– The various culture in the world are as follows:

  • Indian sub-continental culture.
  • Oriental culture.
  • Occidental culture (European).
  • Latin-American culture.
  • African culture.
  • Arabian culture.
  • Aboriginal culture.


Sub – Culture:

– Each culture consists of smaller sub-culture that provide even more specific identification & socialization for its members.

– Include-

  • State of origin.
  • Religion.

– Sub-culture may make up important market segment.

– Hence, marketer’s may design products & marketing programs tailored to their needs.


Social – Class:

– Manifestation of social satisfaction.

– Social classes are relatively homogenous & enduring division in a society, which are hierarchically ordered & whose members share similar values, interests & behaviour.

– May not be a reflection of income alone.

– Other indicators may be

  • Occupation.
  • Education.
  • Area of residence.

– Social class differ in an external characteristic such as.

  • Dress.
  • Speech pattern.
  • Recreation preferences.

– Social class identified by social scientists are:


  • Upper Uppers:
    • Live on inherited wealth.
    • Donate to charity.
    • Good market for jewellery/ Antiques/ Home/ Vacations.
    • Dress conservatively.
    • Reference group for others.
  • Lower Uppers:
    • Earn high income on professional ability.
    • Usually comes from middle class.
    • Active in social events.
    • Seek status symbols.
    • Display conspicuous consumption.
  • Upper Middle:
    • May not possess high family status/ wealth.
    • Primarily concerned with career.
    • Believe in education.
    • Like Ideas and High culture.
    • Quality market for homes/ clothes/ furniture/ white goods.
    • Enjoy entertaining friends.
  • Middle:
    • Average salary people.
    • Live on better side of town.
    • Buy popular goods to live up with trends.
    • Spend on worthwhile experiences for children.
    • Seek better brand names.
  • Working Class:
    • Blue-collars workers.
    • Guided by relatives for assistance in times of troubles.
    • Maintain gender role division.
    • Lead working class lifestyles.
  • Upper Lowers:
    • Perform unskilled work.
    • Poorly paid, strive for more money.
    • Educationally deficient.
    • Living standard just above poverty.
  • Lower Lowers:
    • Poverty stricken.
    • Usually out of work.


Social class show following characteristics:

– Persons within a social class tend to behave alike.

– Persons are perceived as superior/ inferior in society based on social class.

– Social class indicated by a cluster of variables rather than a single variable.

– Individual can move from one social class to another, both, up or down.

– Social class show distinct product/ brand preferences in many areas.



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