Extended Marketing Mix – 7 Ps of Marketing by Booms and Bitner

The Traditional Marketing Mix model was primarily directed and useful for tangible products. With time, as it became difficult to distinguish between products and services, the 4 Ps Marketing Mix model was succeeded by a more evolved 7 Ps Marketing Mix model.

What is Traditional Marketing Mix (The 4Ps Marketing Mix Model) ? Read Here

The 7-Ps model is more useful for services industries and arguably also for knowledge-intensive environments.

The 3 Extra Ps

Booms and Bitner’s have added the following 3 additional Ps to the original Marketing Mix:


All people that are directly or indirectly involved in the consumption of a service are an important part of the Extended Marketing Mix. Knowledge workers, employees, management and consumers often add significant value to the total product or service offering.


Procedure, mechanisms and flow of activities by which services are consumed (customer management processes) are an essential element of the marketing strategy.

Physical Evidence

The ability and environment in which the service is delivered. Both tangible goods that help to communicate and perform the service, and the intangible experience of existing customers and the ability of the business to relay that customer satisfaction to potential customers.

The first two more Ps are explicit (People, Process) and the third one (Physical Evidence) is an implicit factor.

Booms and Bitner also suggest that Place in a service-oriented company includes the accessibility of the service, and that Promotion in a service-oriented company includes the input of front-line service personnel.


  1. I thought that these were added by Philip Kotler. Thanks for the info. Booms and Bitner can probably add a couple of more Ps seeing the rapidly changing business environment.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here